Wilt Chamberlain – Track and Field at the University of Kansas (KU) In Addition to Basketball

Wilt Chamberlain is best known by sports fans as one of the most dominant basketball players of all time. To people less familiar with sports and basketball specifically the name Wilt Chamberlain might have a familiar sound because of his much publicized personal life. What many people do not realize is that before basketball became the focus of his life the first sport that Wilt fell in love with was track and field.

Chamberlain was born on August 21, 1936 and grew up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he had eight brothers and sisters that all came from the same parents of father William and mother Olivia. As a youth growing up in eastern Pennsylvania Wilt famously stated that his first reaction to the game of basketball was that he considered it to be “a game for sissies.” The sport that the young Wilt Chamberlain was exponentially more passionate about was track and field.

Before even reaching high school age the freakishly athletic Wilt Chamberlain is reported to have high jumped 6’6″ which is a mark that would win most high school varsity track meets. Around the same time Wilt was also putting up ridiculously impressive broad jump numbers that are understood to be as far as 22 feet. For comparison purposes almost all high school track athletes can not reach 22 feet in a running long jump and Wit is reported to have reached that length from a stationary standing broad jump position. The high jumping and broad jumping talents are perhaps to be expected considering what the public now knows about his success on the basketball court, however the track and field prowess that Wilt showed was not confined to jumping events.

Thanks to the long strides and powerful running style that Chamberlain employed he was a miraculous middle distance runner as his preteen times of 49 seconds in the 440 yard race (once around a standard track) and under two minutes in the 880 yard distance (twice around a standard track) are exceptional numbers for even a college athlete. Chamberlain excelled at every aspect of track and field including running, jumping, and throwing. He is reported to have tossed a shot put over 53 feet in his youth.

Chamberlain matured very quickly and continued to grow at a rapid pace. At the age of 10 the young man was already 6′ tall and when he started high school he was an astounding 6’11”. As a 7’2″ college freshmen playing basketball at the University of Kansas (commonly referred to as KU) the 240 pound Chamberlain could reach 9’6″ into the air just standing flat footed (no tip toes).

Wilt took up his first love of track and field at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas while also playing basketball there. The 7’2″ goliath ran a sub 11 second 100 yard dash and also threw the shot put 56 feet. Despite competing and excelling in both sprinting and throwing his best events were not surprisingly the jumping events as Chamberlain triple jumped in excess of 50 feet and successfully won the Big 8 Conference high jumping competition three years in a row. In the world of track and field it is an extraordinarily rare athlete that can compete at the highest level in the shortest sprints, all the jumping events, and the throwing events. This dynamic collection of talents is so rare in fact that Wilt might be the only man ever to possess this unique skill set.

Source by Jeff Bank

What Is the Difference Between CR2025 and CR2032?

The numbers linked with different batteries may be confusing for you. Therefore, we are going to eliminate some of the confusion by discussing the difference between the CR2015 and CR2032. We will also discuss the uses of each so you can get the best value for your money. Read on to find out more about the difference.


Both the batteries are known as button batteries and are used in different types of low power devices like toys, computers, calculators, and watches, to name a few. These button cells can be used interchangeably in compatible devices.

So what’s the difference?

Although both the button batteries provide 3 volts, the difference lies in the thickness. The diameter of CR2025 is 20mm and thickness is 2.5mm. In the same way, the CR2032 is 3.2mm thick and features 20mm of diameter. The diameter is the most important thing when it comes to installing a battery in a device.


mAh is short for milliampere-hour. As far as batteries are concerned, this term refers to how long the battery can carry its power and how long it can power the device it is installed in before you need to replace it.

Generally, the CR2025 offers 165mAh of power while the other offers 225 mAh. Based on how often the device is used, you may want to opt for the right unit.


Some users choose a unit that fits well and works great, while others worry about specifics. Given below is a description of some popular brands and the battery details.

THE CR2025

Eunicell: this type features a pack of 5 and offers 150 mAh of power and a lifespan of up to 2 years.

CELEWELL: it comes in a pack of 5 and costs a bit more. However, it’s an ideal choice for smart trackers as it has an mAh capacity of 170+.

Energizer: With an mAh of 163, this one can hold its power for as many as 8 years when stored.

THE CR2032

ExcellBattery: it comes in a pack of 4 and features a capacity of 225mAh.

LiCB: With a shelf life of 8 years and a power rating of 240mAh, this battery type is ROHS certified and free of mercury.

Energizer: It has a capacity of 240 mAh and lasts much longer. Just like CR2020, it comes in a pack of 5.

This was a basic difference between the two batteries. If you need to buy one, make sure you consider these differences. This way you will be able to make a much better decision based on your needs.


In short, there is not a big difference between the CR2032 and CR2020. Although a CR2032 offers a longer storage life, you may not enjoy this advantage at all times. The only big difference is the capacity, which is given in mAh. Therefore, what you need to do is get a full pack. This will save you money and you won’t have to drive to the market to buy another battery.

Source by Dhanusuya K

Understanding Discourse Community And Its Importance

As an experienced conversationalist who has been wielding verbal words since toddlerhood, you easily move from one group of people to another adjusting your tone, your vocabulary, and your syntax accordingly. Often without thinking about it, you speak differently to your parents than you do to your teachers and differently from both groups when alone with your friends. You would not dream of using the same speech patterns in the locker room and the church sanctuary.

Most writers understand the concept of audience and why it is important to understand who their audience is when composing. Yet simply understanding the “who” of your audience is only the beginning for experienced writers. Effective writing, writing that works and delivers the intended message and effect, must fit within the discourse community it is destined to serve.

What is a discourse community? A discourse community is a group of people who “speak the same language” or in other words people who share an interest in certain topics, share a body of knowledge about those topics, and possess a common vocabulary for discussing those topics. Have you ever been around a group of people who shared a common passion that you knew nothing about? Perhaps it is a particular sport or activity, an artistic talent, or a job, but it is likely that without sharing that same passion you find it difficult to follow their conversation. That is because you are not a member of that discourse community. While they are speaking the same language as you — English — the context of the discourse community changes the way language is used as well as the content of that language.

You already belong to several discourse communities as a result of your family, ethnic, and religious background as well as your personal interests and activities. Students enter the larger discourse community of the instituion they attend as well as numerous smaller discourse communities within that institution including specific classrooms, clubs and organizations, and majors and programs.Workers enter the larger discourse community of their employer and depending on the size and focus of the institution may also enter smaller discourse communities within it as well. For example, in a hospital a nurse might belong to the discourse community of the hospital, the nursing staff, and the Emergency Department.

So why is it important for writers to consider discourse community?

Discourse is a conversation or more extended and more formal discussion of our ideas in either speech or writing. Discourse is important as this is how we communicate in the social world that we live and work in. The social groups we communicate within are called communities. A community is a group of people connected for a common goal or purpose. So then a discourse community is a social group that is involved in discourse.

When you participate in a discourse community you must understand what language is used, how language is used, what knowledge is generally possessed within the community, and what motivated and interests the community. Understanding discourse community extends beyond simply knowng your audience and purpose — it means understanding what words to use, how to frame those words into units (sentences, paragraphs, etc.), and what information is already possessed by community members.

Once you understand the concept of discourse community and begin to apply it to your writing you will immediately see a rise in the effectiveness of your writing. Then you can begin to make informed decisions about every aspect of your writing from the word choice, grammar, and sentence/paragraph construction to tone and level of formality.

Source by Deanna Mascle

Manx Cat – Pros and Cons of Owning This Interesting Pet

Reasons for and Against Owning a Manx Cat as a Pet

The Manx cat was first seen in the 1700’s and has become quite popular over the years. The most distinctive feature of this breed is that some of them are tailless while some have short tails and others have regular tails. A tailless or short tailed one is a feature that makes it attractive to people looking for something unusual in a pet cat.

While they come in all types of tail configuration the main feature of these cats are the heads which are round with cradle like ears when view from behind. They are a stocky bodied cat with longer legs in back than in the front. Although they look different than most cats the Manx will show many of the same characteristics as most cats along with a few characteristics of dogs.

These are indoor cats that should be spayed or neutered and made sure they have something to scratch on. They like high places, so if you can’t find them look around at you eye level and you will probably find them on a shelf or on the back of a chair.


The Manx cat is highly intelligent and extremely playful. Their behavior is often confused with that of a dog in that they love to fetch things and will follow you all over the house. They are good watch cats and are very protective of their territory and will attack an intruder no matter the size or type. They are very social and like being around humans very much.

A Manx is going to enjoy playing in water. If you let the water to drip in your bathroom or kitchen, you may find your pet playing in your sink. These pets are known to enjoy a bath which is ideal for owners who want to bathe their cats without being scratched up.

Your pet Manx cat will be good at learning commands and therefore are normally easy to train. They are not a complicated and complex animal which makes them ideal for owners who want a companion as well as a pet.

A Manx is usually a quiet cat without a lot of verbalization although they will “trill” to their young or to their humans and will growl when protecting their territory. Even a female cat in heat is rather quiet about it.


A pet Manx is interested in everything and therefore will play at all hours of the day or night. You might be disturbed at any hour which could be a problem for you and your household. If you do not want to be disturbed by your pet, the best option would be to lock your cat out of your bedroom at night.

Manx Syndrome is the main health problem for a Manx and might be a big concern for you. This causes a shortening of the spine and can be extremely painful and damaging to the cat as it causes problems down the road. Buying your pet Manx from a reputable breeder will eliminate most problems such as this. Another thing you might want to do is buy insurance which can help with the expensive bills associated with Manx Syndrome.

Getting a cat that is free from Manx Syndrome will mean that you’ll have a pet that is no more likely to have medical problems than any other type of cat. Due to the high degree of intelligence, the loving nature along with a relatively long life makes a pet Manx a highly desirable acquisition to any family.

Consider all of these options when looking to own a Manx cat. Once you know all there is to know about them, you will be able to decide if this particular type of pet cat is what you want inside your household or as a companion. I think you will agree that they are not only unusual but make good pets.

Source by Don A Levy

How Level 3 and 3A Body Armor Differ From Each Other

Looking at the standard set by the National Institute of Justice, you will notice the “A” in every level. For instance, there are levels 3 and 3A body armor. This poses a lot of questions from users especially those who are new to this kind of protective clothing.

In this article, you will uncover the difference and the advantages between these two types of bullet proof vest. At the end of this article, you will also figure out what level of ballistic vest is relevant to your day-to-day activities.

In 1970, the US Justice Department conducted research and study in order to come up with proper standard. After several trials, testing, and evaluation, the final resistance standard evolved which today known as the National Institute Standard 0101.

This standard was implemented in 1987 and is until today the primary standard utilized around the world for bullet resistance vest. Coupled with rigid quality control, wearers are assured and confident that the bullet proof vest can provide the protection as specified in the label.

The standard of resistance is divided into six levels. That is level 1, 1A, 2, 2A, 3, 3A and 4. Levels 1 to 3A is considered as part of the soft body armor while level 3 and 4 belongs to the hard armor. Hard body armor is designed to repel much powerful ammunitions. This type of ballistic vest contains hard armor plates which are inserted in the pockets of soft body armor. This is basically the primary difference between a level 3 and level 3A body armor. Level 3A belongs to the soft bullet resistant vest while level 3 are hard armors.

Hard plates require the conjunction of soft ballistic vests to be considered as hard body armor. This means that after the testing is done for the resistant vest for an additional caliber and also those rifles specified in the NIJ standard, the inclusion of +A in the threat level is approved. Once a hard armor plate or plates is added into the soft bullet resistant vest then it becomes level 3. Consequently, the higher the level of protection, the heavier and bulkier the vest becomes.

Usually, a level 3A bullet proof vest can withstand.22 long rifle lead rounds,.380 ACP, 9mm,.40 full metal jackets,.357 magnum, and other handguns. Level 3 ballistic vest on the other hand can resist 7.62 full metal jacketed bullets and other 48 joules of energy weaponry. This is considered the highest level of protection among the standard resistance capacity except for level 4 which are most likely custom-made vests specially designed to defeat more advanced ammunitions.

Source by Henry N.

Origin of Track and Field

Track and field is commonly known as athletics. The track and field events can be divided into three categories such as running, jumping, and throwing events. The origin of track and field was started way back in 776 BC, in Greece. Athletic competitions were regularly held in union with religious festivals. The events were arranged for men only and the women were not allowed to participate in it. This carried on for many centuries, but the real development started in England during the 19th century. Many students from schools and universities gave the momentum to track and field.

The origin of track and field started in Greece, is an individual sport. From 776 BC, the sport events were held in Olympia every four years and this carried out for almost 12 centuries. The track and field events included the three-foot races and events such as javelin, long jump, wrestling, boxing, etc. The start of 19th century really accelerated the events in France, Germany, and Great Britain. Track and field in the United States is reported to be started from 1860. The Amateur Athletic Union in 1888 held the first inter-college races and since then track and field is one of the most popular high school sports in the United States. Every year thousands of high school students started to participate in track and field events.

The rules of track and field events in modern days are quite different from the ancient times. The spirit of game is the same and each event developed into popularity as the days progressed. The only issue remained was the status of athletes because track and field event was considered a part time sport and the participants were not allowed to accept money or cash prizes. The athletes were even banned for life. Though the rules changed soon after and the track and field event got a professional modern look.

The origin of track and field event in modern Olympics was started in 1896. Slowly and steadily track and field became an international sport and in 1913 the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) was formed which included members from 16 countries. The IAAF established the standard rules for the sport and soon later, the course of sport was completely changed. The construction of fabulous stadiums soon started and the important term world record was approved in 1913.

Today the athletes have many options to participate in track and field events. You have the choice of participate in track events such as sprints, short and long distance running, hurdling, relays, etc. If you have sufficient stamina, you can take part in road running, race walking, or famous marathon event. The choice of javelin throw, shot put, hammer throw, and discus throws has been admired by many strong athletes. The events such as high jump, long jump, pole vault, triple jump, etc has added more excitement to the event.

Source by Candis Reade

Barometric Pressure and How It Affects Animals

Barometric pressure has a direct effect on the life around us. The amount of atmospheric pressure is constantly changing and sudden changes can create health issues such as migraines in people to affecting behavior in animals. Barometric pressure is a highly searched criteria reaching around 201,000 times a month on average within the United States and achieving over 300,000 searches with the spelling of barometric pressure.

Barometric pressure measures the amount of downward force that the atmosphere exerts within a specific air column. Barometric pressure travels in terms of peaks, flats and valleys and will rise and fall accordingly. Atmospheric pressure is a key means to predicting weather 12 to 24 hours in advance and has a 70% accuracy rate. Pressure sensors will detect a drop in atmospheric pressure as inclement weather approaches. Typically, pressure drops in front of a weather system and then will rise as the weather systems moves out of the area. High pressure typically entails bright, blue, clear days or nights while normal pressure periods results in scattered clouds. As the atmospheric pressure gauge drops, expect increasing clouds and possibly storms as the atmospheric pressure continues to drop.

As people may feel the effects of barometric pressure changes in terms of ear pain, dizziness or headaches, animals too are affected by pressure changes. Many animals rely on scent and scent is highly dependent on atmospheric pressure. When low pressure is in the area, scent will travel further and higher in the atmosphere but as the millibars continues to drop resulting in rain, fog or snow, the scent will hug the ground and last longer. On high pressure days, scent will dissipate quickly.

The overall relationship between barometric pressure and changing weather conditions results in changes in animal behavior. Hunters and anglers alike monitor the sudden drops in millibars to predict an increase in animal movement. This increase in movement can be attributed to the animals or fish expecting inclement weather and survival instincts to feed and stock up on energy to survive a period of discomfort associated with long lasting storms.

Hunters, anglers and those sensitive to changes in barometric pressure may benefit from monitoring and tracking barometric pressure readings from gauges and at home weather stations. There are several types of pressure sensors and monitors that are available on the market. The prices range on eBay from a few dollars to hundreds of dollars for high end at home weather stations that come with a variety of external sensors for gauging wind direction, barometric pressure, temperature, and humidity. The barometric pressure sensor on many models tracks the past 24 hours of pressure readings that allow the user to determine if pressure is stable, rising or dropping at any given time. The following devices are popular for the climate monitoring enthusiast:

The Honeywell TE923 is a Deluxe Weather Station that cost from $200 to $300 from Amazon.com and utilizes external sensors such as the barometric pressure sensor, temperature and humidity sensors, UV sensor for measuring harmful UV levels and wind and rain sensors.

MFJ 196RC Deluxe Wireless Atomic Weather Station is offered on eBay for slightly below $200 and also utilizes external climate sensors for measuring and displaying barometric pressure changes, wind direction, temperature and humidity.

One of the downfalls of these types of home weather stations is the difficulty in storing these measurements. All of the monitors that I have seen across eBay and amazon display roughly the same information with the same graphics. While the Honeywell weather station stores 24 hours of atmospheric pressure readings, the MFJ weather station stores 12 to 20 hours of readings. From what I can tell, these popular models do not write each data point to an external system or within its memory for long term analysis. Don’t let that hold you back from exploring or purchasing one of these weather stations as the NOAA collects this types of data from across the country. I believe you can subscribe to their feed and bring in historical and current data for a specific area.

Spending the time and money to monitor and track barometric pressure changes can help determine the type of behavior animals will exhibit. By understanding how rises and drops of barometric pressure readings will influence animal behavior, a hunter or angler will be able to more effectively prepare their strategy on how to hunt or fish.

Source by Chris Doug Smith

The Difference Between Digital Books and Ebooks

Most people today, don’t know the difference between a digital book and an ebook. In fact, many people think they are one and the same. They couldn’t be farther from the truth. They are entirely different species of the same animal.

Digital books

Digital books, sometimes also called electronic books or PDF books, are scanned, digital facsimiles of standard printed, published books. You can think of them as enhanced copies of the actual hard or paperback books we have come to know and love.

When we are talking about the digital version of newer publications, they are pretty much identical to the original. When talking about old or even ancient publication, they are much better than any original you would find on the shelf of your local library. Since they are facsimiles of the original printing, this really increases quality and helps overcome the problems of many older books, such as yellowed pages, stains, see-through or onion skin type paper, colored paper, brown inks, etc. These are scanned pages, not ‘copied’ pages, and the quality of print truly represents a better quality than the print of the original book.

The great majority of digital books come in PDF format, though Amazon offers a Kindle edition, Mobipocket offers the MOBI version, then there is the plain TEXT format, as well as many others.

Digital books are usually far less expensive than their hard or paperback counterparts, and there are hardly ever shipping costs, unless they are delivered on a CD (Compact Disk).


Ebooks are digital books too, but they were designed and written for the internet. Many, if not most ebooks were never officially “published” at all, unless you count posting something on the internet as publishing.

Most ebooks were meant to be written quickly, with little or no expenses except for possibly distribution. The majority are short, almost always less than 100 pages, usually under 50 pages. Some ebooks are literally slapped together in a matter of hours. Often they are little more than several short reports combined together.

Many ebooks are self-help books, or manuals of some kind, though there are some eBook works of history and fiction to be found if you look for them. More often than not, they have little or no literary value, their intentions being the distribution of facts, instructions and/or ideas.

Sometimes you may come across the eBook version of a hard or soft cover book. It will even be called the “ebook version” of whatever book. But if you look closer, you will find that this eBook version is almost always far fewer pages than the original. You may as well call the “ebook version” the “condensed version” of the book.

Though you will find many ebooks in PDF format, much like digital books, but many come as various generic interactive applications. But don’t let the initial attraction of interaction fool you. Even if this sounds like high tech education at first, you will find that there is not much to the promise of interaction. It just disguises the fact that these books are short, technically no more than a few pages, with little to no real practical, and even less academic value.

Last but not least, ebooks are often free or cheap, though you will occasionally find some specialty instruction “programs” costing hundred of dollars.


Technically, ebooks are digital books, though practically there is a big difference. Personally, I usually prefer a digital book to its eBook cousin.

By Thomas A. Retterbush

Source by Thomas Retterbush

Valentine’s Day Treats – Restaurants And Roses

No sooner is the busy Christmas and New Year period out of the way, our thoughts turn to the feast of St Valentine’s Day, celebrated on 14th February by lovers the World over!

Through the dark, cold days of winter, it is an excellent excuse to gladden our hearts, show our romantic sides and dream about the warmer weather of summer.

Traditional love tokens are greetings cards, chocolates and red roses, followed by a secluded table in a local restaurant for your favourite meal and a special moment with your loved one.

But what are the origins of this particular feast day and why do we most often associate it with food, flowers and cards?

It is thought that the earliest beginnings of this special day were set in place back in Roman times when many Christian martyrs were named Valentine. Legends abound, but I can’t really see how you can get from a rather horrific death to the sugary-sweetness of today’s celebrations.

For the British people, Chaucer probably came closest to linking a valentine to that of romance and love, writing a sonnet to commemorate the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia.

“For this was on Saint Valentine’s Day,

When every bird cometh there to choose his mate”

Over the centuries many poets and writers added their weight to the legends, including Shakespeare who wrote a piece in Hamlet for Ophelia who remarked rather ruefully,

“Tomorrow is Saint Valentine’s day,

All in the morning betime,

And I a maid at your window,

To be your Valentine.

Then up he rose, and donn’d his clothes,

And dupp’d the chamber door;

Let in the maid, that out a maid

Never departed more.”

It is a British publisher that took the next step to the modern ideal of Valentine gifts by printing sentimental verses in cards in an effort to help the poor bedazzled lover who couldn’t think of the right words to use!

With the advent of the penny post it was now possible to send your card anonymously, the verses soon becoming a little more daring, adding to the thrill and expectation. From the prudish Victorian’s to the commercial 20th century, we rapidly gained reasons to promote Valentine’s Day to one of gift and pleasure giving, with diamond jewelry, red roses and of course the feasting!

Today we can even send digital cards, but I am not sure that it is quite the same as receiving something in the post! For me, I’d rather be swept off my feet by the red roses, chocolates and the secluded spot in my favourite restaurant. The evening could only be made sweeter if I don’t have to drive home!

Source by Helen Palmer

How to Follow the Money in Horse Racing – And Why Most Methods Are Flawed

Following the money has been a big practice amongst punters ever since the invention of the exchanges allowed people to see the exact amounts of cash being placed on each horse in a race. This is something that if used right can be a very profitable betting strategy but if done wrong will lose you a lot of money. Following these 3 simple rules will allow you to profit from the work of other punters.

1. Ignore large amounts of money on the favorites, especially on high profile races. Often the large amounts of money coming in will just be people following the crowd and betting on the best looking horse in the race. You won’t find much value in these.

2. Look for large amounts of money coming in for longer priced runners. This is unlikely to be the Sunday punter crowd and may indicate that someone who knows their stuff is having a punt.

3. Look for large amounts of money coming in for horses that are not well supported by the racing media. Most punters don’t actually read races – they simply bet on the selections of people who do. If a horse that has received little to no attention from the pundits is having big money bet on it the chances are that someone knows something you’ve missed. So to put all that into a workable strategy, use these steps as a rough outline

1. Take the list of all horses in a race.

2. Cross out the favorites

3. Cross out the top rated time form horse (you can find this information for free in betfair)

4. Using the racing post site or newspaper, cross out any runners that show up in the NAP of the day list, that are highly tipped by the newspaper tipsters, that have much higher than average RP ratings or topspeed ratings, any horse that won its last race or that are tipped by Pricewise

5. Download betfair rapid (it’s free) so you can easily see how much money is going where.

6. If one of the horses left on your list suddenly starts getting thousands of pounds bet on it during the last 10 minutes before the off – consider it a selection.

It’s not an exact system, because with something like following the money or trading prices there really are no exact systems (that work anyway). It’s a case of practice, practice and practice until you start to get an instinct for it. Doing so with the about information however will put you well ahead of 99% of other people trying to follow the money!

Source by David White